Chlorine
Cl2
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General Characteristics Health Hazards Material Recommendations
A yellowish green, nonflammable and liquefied gas with an unpleasant and irritating smell. A Toxic Product, Attacks the eyes and mucous membranes and eyes. Contact with the skin causes severe burns. Causes lung damage Highly corrosive in moist conditions. Dry Gas use: Copper, stainless or Monel. Moist use: Tantalum
TLV-TWA Flammable Limits DOT Class / Label
0.5 ppm Nonflammable 2.3 / Poison Gas
Molecular Weight Specific Gravity Specific Volume
70.9 2.473 @ 70 F 5.4 cu.ft./lb @ 70 F
CGA Valve Outlet CAS Registry No. UN Number
660 7782-50-5 1017
National Stock Number (NSN) Applicable to Chlorine MIL Specs/ Fed Specs
MSDS for Chlorine


Grade
Part #
Purity Minimum Cylinder
Size
Volume
LBS
Pressure
@ 70 F
Comments
Electronic
467900
99.99%
Liquid phase
761
054
007
LBS
2000
150
7
1
85.3
85.3
85.3
85.3

None

Ultra High Purity
422700
99.9% Min.
Liquid phase
761
054
007
LBS
2000
150
7
1
85.3
85.3
85.3
85.3
Chemically Pure
405200
99.5%
Liquid Phase
761
054
007
LBS
2000
150
7
1
85.3
85.3
85.3
85.3

USES

Chlorine is a clear amber-colored liquid about 1.5 times heavier than water. Gaseous chlorine is greenish-yellow, about 2.5 times as heavier than air. Uses include water purification, sanitation in of industrial waste, sewage and swimming pools, bleaching of pulp and textiles and manufacture of carbon tetrachloride, glycol and numerous other organic compounds and phosgene gas.

SAFETY

Chlorine is a powerful oxidizing agent and it must be handled carefully. A fresh water source should be available at the field site where liquid sodium hypochlorite is being used so that any contact or spills can immediately be washed off. Protective clothing should be worn while handling this chemical and injectors. Goggles should be worn to protect eyes against splashes.

Chlorine gas is a respiratory irritant which affects the mucous membranes. It can be fatal after a few breaths at 1000 ppm. Therefore, users of chlorine gas must exercise extreme caution to ensure that it is safely injected. Maximum air concentrations should not exceed 1 ppm for prolonged exposure. Chlorine gas should only be used in well-ventilated areas so that any leaking gas cannot concentrate. This form of chlorine is commonly used in municipal water treatment systems. It should only be used by experienced or licensed users. For safety, only vacuum type injectors should be used.

Chlorine is a toxic, corrosive, greenish yellow gas that is irritating to the eyes and respiratory system; it is two and a half times heavier than air. It becomes a liquid at -34° C (-29° F). First prepared from hydrochloric acid and manganese dioxide in 1774 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, it was considered a compound until Sir Humphry Davy showed (1810) that it cannot be decomposed and that muriatic (hydrochloric) acid consists of hydrogen and another true element that he named chlorine.

General

Chlorine constitutes about 0.013 percent of the Earth's crust. Free chlorine has been reported as a very minor constituent of volcanic gases, of which hydrogen chloride (q.v.) is a fairly common component. Chlorine, as the chloride ion Cl-, is the main negative ion in ocean water (1.9 percent by weight) and in inland seas such as the Caspian Sea, the Dead Sea, and the Great Salt Lake of Utah; it is found in evaporite minerals, for example, combined with sodium, as rock salt (halite) and in the minerals chlorapatite and sodalite. Natural chlorine is a mixture of two stable isotopes: chlorine-35 (75.53 percent) and chlorine-37 (24.47 percent). The Chloride ion is present in the body fluids of higher animals and as hydrochloric acid in the digestive secretions of the stomach.

Chlorine gas, a poison, was the first gas used in chemical warfare in World War I. It causes suffocation, constriction of the chest, tightness in the throat, and edema of the lungs. As little as 2.5 mg per litre (approximately 0.085 percent by volume) in the atmosphere causes death in minutes, but less than 0.0001 percent by volume may be tolerated for several hours. Its strong odour gives warning of its presence at much lower
concentrations than are dangerous.

Most chlorine is industrially produced by the electrolysis of brine; some is also obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of sodium metal by the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. Chlorine and its compounds are used extensively for bleaching in the paper and textile industries, for disinfecting municipal water supplies, for household bleaches and germicides, and for the production of many organic and inorganic chemicals.

Chlorine molecules are composed of two atoms (Cl2). Chlorine combines directly with almost all the elements
(exceptions are oxygen, fluorine, nitrogen, carbon, and the noble gases) to give chlorides; those of most metals are ionic crystals, whereas those of the semimetals and nonmetals are predominantly molecular. Besides the -1 oxidation state of the chlorides, chlorine also exhibits +1, +3, +5, +7 oxidation states, respectively, in the following ions: hypochlorite, ClO-; chlorite, ClO-2 ; chlorate, ClO-3 ; and perchlorate, ClO-4 . Four oxides, chlorine monoxide (Cl2O), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), dichlorine hexoxide (Cl2O6), and dichlorine heptoxide (Cl2O7), all highly reactive and unstable, have been indirectly synthesized. Chlorine can displace the heavier halogens, bromine and iodine, from their ionic compounds and undergoes addition or substitution reactions with organic compounds. Chlorine enters directly or as an intermediate into the synthesis of many organic chemicals that are used as solvents, dyes, plastics, and synthetic rubber.

Atomic number 17

Atomic weight 35.453

Melting point -103° C (-153° F)

Boiling point -34° C (-29° F)

Density (1 atm, 0 C) 3.214 g/litre

Oxidation states -1, +1, +3, +5, +7

Electronic config. 2-8-7 or 1s22s22p63s23p5

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